A CIESE Collaborative Project

# Fall 2002 Student Reports

## Hueneme High School

#### Oxnard, California, USA

Greetings,

We have finished our experiment and checked our data. The data indicated that as the elevation increases the boiling temp of water drops. We were not sure what would happen but the experimental data showed us the there is a direct relationship between the elevation and the temp that the water boils.

Hueneme High School

## St. Rose of Lima

#### Massapequa, New York, USA

This is the 2nd year I have had my 8th grade students do this project. It is a wonderful experiment!!!!! The students discovered that the elevation is the factor that influences boiling point.

Thank you for allowing this project to continue.

## Harpeth Hall School

#### Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Harpeth Hall students concluded that elevation had the most effect on boiling point because the correlation between elevation and boiling point is the greatest. The explanation of this is that the higher the elevation the lower the air pressure. If air pressure is low it cannot squash the bubbles made in the water, which means the water will turn to gas sooner, and the boiling point will be lower.

## White Family Homeschool

#### Batavia, Ohio, USA

In this experiment, we learned many things. We learned that some variables will have no effect on the boiling point of water, while other variables may completely change the boiling point. Variables that did not change or effect the boiling point in any way include the volume of water used, and the room temperature. Variables that did effect boiling point were elevation and atmospheric pressure. The higher the elevation , the lower the boiling point.

Our hypothesis: We believe that the elevation of a location will most effect the boiling point of water. Looking at our results, our hypothesis was correct. We believe that accuracy in this experiment was crucial for good results. If I were to repeat this experiment and could change one thing, I would have changed the thermometers we used for a better one. One of them melted right in the pan! Luckily, it was on the third day of the experiment. I think that this experiment was educational and interesting to see all the information and graphing. I would recommend it to anyone who is interested in boiling points and what can alter them.

## Jangsung Girls' High School

#### Taebaek, Kangwondo, South Korea

We expected the boiling point to be 100 degrees but we also thought that it might vary depending on elevation. Our hypothesis was that as elevation increases the boiling point decreases. By calibrating the thermometer before we started our experiment, we found that the thermometer was less accurate than we thought. And after experiment we was surprised our school and other schools results varied.

In our data analysis we calculated the correlation coefficient for elevation(-0.473), volume of water(-0.063) and room temperature(-0.067) in order to determine which had the greatest factor in the boiling point.

We concluded that elevation was the primary factor influencing the boiling point. The normal boiling point of a water is the temperature at which its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure. Therefore, the higher the elevation goes up, the lowerer the atmospheric pressure goes down. Consquently, the bubbles in the water are made easily and the boiling point will be lower. The more detailed information on the data analysis is available in the Science Club hompage
( http://boilingpoint.hihome.com ) and please visit the site for further information.

## Crossett Brook Middle School

#### Duxbury, Vermont, USA

After looking over A LOT of data, we entered the data for two variables at a time into a spreadsheet (example: boiling point and elevation), then made a scatter plot of the data. Once the scatter plots came up, we compared them to see if there was any correlation between any of the variables and boiling point. The only chart that showed the most correlation was boiling point vs. elevation. Although there was quite a bit of variation in boiling points between zero and 500 meters, the trend really developed as the elevation increased. We are thankful to those students at the mountain school in Colorado, as that boiling point was significantly lower than other locations at lower elelvations.

So our original hypothesis seems to be supported by all of the data. This was a fun activity and we learned a lot. Thank you!

The Red and Blue Groups from Crossett Brook Middle School

## Colegio Franklin Delano Roosevelt American School of Lima

#### Lima, Peru

View Science Lab Report (PDF Document)

Hypothesis:

Our hypothesis is that the most important factor in the boiling of water is elevation. In this experiment, elevation is the factor that will have the greatest influence in determining the boiling point of water because the higher the elevation, the less air pressure there is so the greater the boiling point is.

Analysis:
We are trying to find out what is the main factor in the boiling of water. We think that elevation is the factor that will have the most control in determining the boiling point of water because the higher the elevation, the less air pressure there is so the lower the boiling point is. What we did to find out if our hypothesis was correct was first to set a thermometer to find room temperature and record it. After that we put 200mL of distilled water in a beaker and after transferred the water into a flask. We placed the flask in the ring stand by holding it with a clamp. Then we put a calibrated thermometer in the ring stand. The thermometer was attached to a clamp. After that we turned the gas valve on. We lit up the Bunsen Burner a lighter. Subsequently we placed the Bunsen Burner under the metal screen, which was on the ring stand. Last of all, we recorded what the temperature of the thermometer was every 30 seconds. A pattern that our group saw was that the temperature of the water always boiled around 99ºC to 100ºC. We reject our hypothesis because from our data we have seen that the higher the elevation, the less temperature it takes to boil water (refer to graph 2.) Possible errors could have been the inaccurate equipment or the inaccuracy of the recording of the temperature because the mercury seen from another angle and not straight forward, could tell you another temperature.

Conclusion:
As a conclusion to our experiment, we think that the factor that makes the boiling point vary, is altitude. As shown on graph number two, the vast majority of the boiling points around 100 are around 0-500 meters above sea level. Before beginning this experiment, as a group we thought that the higher the elevation, the higher the boiling point. Our hypothesis was incorrect in one way because the truth is that the higher the elevation, the lower the boiling point. Even though the controlling factor in these experiments was the elevation of each school. Our class got an average boiling point of 100.3°C. The results were that way because our school is almost at sea level, boiling point at sea level is around 100°C. If we would do our experiment in the Andes, at about 4,000 meters above sea level, the boiling point would be about 90°C or below. This is because the higher the elevation you are at, the lower the boiling point. In this experiment, accuracy of measurements is very important because it can show us if our hypothesis is right or wrong, it can also make the data table wrong. The thermometers we used were not as accurate, so when they were calibrated, they were not zeroed out. That could have made us get confused and subtract the wrong temperature. In this experiment, we would have changed the thermometers, and probably we would have changed them because they are not very accurate. In a future experiment, we would like to test the level of humidity vs. boiling point. Some new things we learned by doing this experiment prepared so many times, were that the elevation is indeed the controlling factor. We also learned that it is very good to repeat an experiment so many times to get more accurate answers by averaging all of the temperatures than just to base the conclusion or analysis on only one temperature. We had a lot of fun doing all these fun experiments and will use our learned knowledge in future experiments/activities.

## Cedar Drive Middle School

#### Colts Neck, New Jersey, USA

The eighth-grade students in Mr. Gatti's science classes have come to the following conclusions after completing this project:

1. There is no correlation between heating device and boiling point.
2. There is no correlation between volume of water and boiling point.
3. There is no correlation between room temperature and boiling point.
4. There is a fairly close correlation between elevation and boiling point.

We decided that as the elevation increased, the boiling point decreased. We believe that the increase in elevation causes a corresponding decrease in air pressure, which permits the water to boil at a lower temperature.

## Manteno High School

#### Manteno, Illinois, USA

We learned may things from participating in this project. We learned that our hypothesis that elevation has the greatest effect on boiling point was not proven wrong. We learned how to graph the data using Excel and plot a trend line (regression line???) to see what the line looks like. Ours showed that as elevation went up the boiling point went down.
Thank you for letting us be part of your project!

Mr. Leopold's Physical Science classes

## Torrey Pines High School

#### San Diego, California, USA

AP Chemistry Class

Final Report: The International Boiling Point Project

Instead of the volume of water, the graphs and table showed that the elevation where the water is boiled actually has the strongest correlation to the boiling point of water. The experimental results didn't support our initial hypothesis because it doesn't matter how much water is being boiled, the boiling point will always remain around 100 ° C. The graph of volume of water vs. boiling point is almost horizontal. Something new we learned was how to construct a best-fit line for a set of data. We also learned how to compare data using correlation and reach conclusions based on the comparisons. From the data, we learned that room temperature and volume of water has hardly any effect on boiling point because boiling point is independent of those factors. We interpreted our data by observing graphs and the heating device data table. We reached the conclusion that the elevation strongly correlates with boiling point as most of the data points lies on the best-fit line. Next time we would try to use a stopwatch rather than the clock and also avoid collecting unwanted data to prevent minor errors in calculating the boiling point.

Chemistry Class

Boiling Point Letter of Conclusion

The elevation was the most significant factor on boiling point, as our hypothesis previously stated. We concluded this because the number of points that were closest to the line of best fit was greatest for this graph. Our group learned that boiling point changes due to certain factors, which we did no know. We know now however, that boiling point is not just one set temperature, and is affected greatly by alternate factors. The things that we would do differently if we were to repeat this lab is to be more accurate with our temperature-taking and with scaling our thermometer so that our temperatures are more accurate. This project was a great learning experience for all of us, as chemists, because we now know what scientists go through in order to complete any lab accurately.

## Barry Goldwater High School

#### Phoenix, Arizona, USA

Period 1

The result of our lab was that elevation effected the boiling point. The reason we conclude this is because our graphs support our hypothesis. The graph of Elevation vs. Boiling point was the only one to show a decrease or increase in boiling point. Boiling point vs. Room Temperature, neither Boiling point vs. Heating Device, nor Boiling point vs. Volume of water shows any indifference in variations. Therefore, concluding that our hypothesis was correct.
In our lab we learned that Boiling point can be effected by different variables. The way we interpreted our results was now being able to apply our knowledge to everyday use. We concluded that elevation effected the boiling point of water but the other variables only effected the time it took for the water to boil. So, therefore; the higher the elevation the lower the boiling point. Next time we would use different resources to look up our information.

Period 2

In conclusion, this report looked back on our boiling point lab. Our hypothesis was supported in this lab in which we decided that the elevation would have the most effect on the boiling point of water, and through our experimentation, we found that we were correct. We found that the lower the elevation was, the higher the boiling point was. The higher the elevation was, the lower the boiling point was. This was because this happens because the higher you are, the air is less dense the air is, and the lower you are the most dense the air is.

One thing that we learned in this lab was that the higher elevation you are, the less dense the air is. We interpreted our results as the elevation factor had the most effect on the boiling point of water over the other 3 factors. The conclusion we reached was that elevation was the most important factor when boiling water. If we had to do this experiment again, we would like to use another heating device to see if the results change.

Period 3

After completing this experiment, we came to the conclusion that elevation had the most effect on what temperature water boils at. We came to this conclusion because when we graphed our data and the results of all the other factors showed that there was no way for them to have the highest effect. Elevation was the only factor that we were capable of drawing a line of best fit for.

The main thing we learned from this experiment was that the higher the elevation you are at, the lower the boiling point water will have. This is due to the fact that when you are at a higher elevation, there is less atmospheric pressure. When you have less atmospheric pressure, molecules escape faster. When the molecules escape faster the boiling point is lower because the molecules moving around is what produces the heat. In conclusion, water can boil without being heated because as long as there is no pressure water will boil due to molecules escaping faster.

Period 5

After gathering all the data and putting that information into the graphs, we learned that the volume of water, the temperature of the water and the heating device did not affect the boiling point of water. The factor that did affect the boiling of water was elevation.

In the process of doing this lab we learned that the heating device would not have any affect on boiling point of water and neither would the temperature of the room. We interpreted our results by graphing the variables against boiling point and seeing if there were any relationships between the variable and the boiling point. Our conclusion was that elevation was the variable that affected the boiling point of water. If we ever had to do this lab again the only factors that we would change would be to use different variables.

Period 7 A

In conclusion to the International Boiling Point Project, our group found that elevation had the greatest if only affect on the boiling point of water. Elevation had the greatest affect on water due to the thin air and less atmospheric pressure. Since the air is thinner the water molecules can spread apart easier.
Something new we learned in the Boiling Point Project was that elevation is really the only factor that affects the boiling point of water. We interpreted our results to be correct due to the correlation we observed on the elevation graph. Next time if we were to do the experiment, we would use different types of water solutions as a variable in our experiment.

Period 7 B

To summarize the data, out of different variables: elevation, room temperature, and volume, elevation had the strongest correlation with the water's boiling point. The fact that the higher the elevation, the lower the boiling point was consistent throughout the whole experiment. To explain this, in higher elevations air pressure is lower making it easier and faster for water to boil, thus creating a lower boiling point.

2. This data was discovered by carefully observing all the factors in our experiment. Those factors consisted of room temperature, volume of water and elevation. The factors, room temperature and volume did not show any consistency or obvious conclusion. However, observing the elevation gave a clear and definite correlation between itself and the boiling point. Through this process we were able to determine the factor that best correlates with the boiling point of water.

## Mabry Middle School

#### Marietta, Georgia, USA

Greetings from Mabry Middle School. Most of Mrs. Meehan's student's concluded that the elevation had the most obvious correlation to boiling point. In the Green class several students felt that the room temperature results may take a second place position in the correlation to boiling point.

Students in both the Red and the Blue classes decided that, in general, the higher the elevation the lower the boiling point. The Yellow class also noticed the correlation between elevation and boiling point. They figured that the higher the elevation, the lower the air pressure and therefore the lower the boiling point. This was a great way to go through the scientific method and also experience water boiling at other than 100 degrees Celsius. In conclusion - the hypothesis, for all 4 sections of Mabry's Advanced Earth Science, was correct according to the data collected during this experiment.
Elevation has the biggest impact on the boiling point of water.

## Jose Marti Middle School

#### Hialeah, Florida, USA

We have learned so much by participating in this project! First, we have learned how changes in temperature takes place as you heat water. Understanding the relationship between boiling point and the elevation was a major lesson. Secondly, we have also learned about, calibrating a thermometer, making graphs by using Excel, and analyzing data .

In order to investigate the relationship between the variables we have carefully selected the data. We have selected short ranges for three of the factors allowing the fourth factor to be the independent variable. Finally, we made line and bar graphs and observed trends, and magnitude of the slopes.

Accordingly with our analysis, there was a decreasing relationship between the boiling point and the elevation. Besides, there was no relationship between the room temperature, heating device or volume of water and the boiling point of water.

It has been a great pleasure to participate in this project!

## Arts High School

#### Newark, New Jersey, USA

Our original Hypothesis:

It is our hypothesis that room temperature has the greatest impact on boiling point, but elevation also has a significant effect.

Conclusion:

After analyzing the data gathered from the experiment, it is our conclusion that boiling point decreases at higher elevations as a result of lower air pressure. Room temperature, heating apparatus, and volume of water do not have an impact on the boiling point temperature.

During the experiment, we graphed data in an attempt to show a correlation between boiling point and the four variables in the experiment: elevation, volume of water, heating apparatus, and room temperature. Our graphs showed a fixed pattern or correlation between boiling point and elevation. No pattern was present for the other variables. We therefore revised our original hypothesis and came to the conclusion that elevation did effect the boiling point of water, but there appeared to be no evidence that suggested that the volume of water, heating apparatus, or room temperature had any effect.

We would like to thank everyone that participated in the experiment.

The Arts High School Jaguars

## Valley View Middle School

#### Simi Valley, California, USA

The long process of the Boil Boil Toil and Trouble project has finally ended, and we have learned so many new things. One of those things being how to make a trend line through the data on a line graph. We also learned how to make a bar graph correctly on the computer. Plus, this project truly helped us get the point across that as the elevatoin increases the boiling point decreases. In the beginning of this project, we learned how to test if a thermometer is correct. Along with that, we learned how to use a hot plate, and we learned how long to wait in order for the temperature to remain the same for it to become the true boiling point. Also, we learned how to compare and contrast results to form charts and tables that show some relation to each other. I belive that our class will use every one of these things at least once in the near, or far, future.
-C Block Gate Science, Valley View Middle school

## Cain Middle School

#### Rockwall, Texas, USA

PreAp Science - 2nd Period Final Report:

The purpose of this investigation is to find out whether the tempurature of the room, elevation or location, volume of water, or the type of heating device most effects the tempurature of water at boiling point.

Our hypothesis is as the volume of water increases, then the tempurature at which the water boils decreaces.

We reject our hypothesis that the volume of water most effects the boiling point. The variable that most effected the boiling point was in fact the elevation. It seems that the lower the elevation is, the higher the boiling point is. At 0-100 meters above sea level the boiling point is 97.8 degrees celcius. The boiling point slowly decreases until 3001-4000 meters above sea level where the boiling point is only 91.0 degrees celcius. Our hypothesis was wrong because on the graph the data was all over the place up, down, up, down the whole time.

PreAP Science - 3rd Period Final Report:

The purpose of this investigation is to determine which variable has the greatest effect on the temperature of water at boiling point.

Our hypothesis is: the elevation of the location experimented will have the greatest effect on the temperature of water at boiling point.

We accept our hypothesis. During our three day experiment, it shows in our data that there is an overall trend of elevation of location. According to my graph, as the elevation of location increased, the temperature of water at boiling point decreased. The beginning group (0-100 meters) averaged to 97.84 degrees celcius, whereas the last group (3401-3500 meters) averaged to 91 degrees celcius. This shows a major declining trend between the sets of data. The elevation of location was the variable that had the greatest effect on the temperature of water at boiling point. Therefore, increasing the elevation of location decreases the temperature of water at boiling point.

PreAp Science-4th Period Final Report

The purpose of this investigation is to determine what variable effects the temperature of water at boiling point.

Our hypothesis- is the volume of water efects the temperature of water at boiling the most.

We reject our hypothesis because upon reviewing the data we have drawn to some conclusions. First we analyzed the temperatures of rooms data and its relation to the boiling point. Even with identical room temperatures the boiling point varied, from 91 degrees celcius up to 98.8 degrees celcius both from the same temperatures of rooms 20 degrees celcius. Next, we reviewed the volume data. Again, we found similiar results. For example at 200 mL of water the boiling point ranged from 95.99 degrees celcius to 100 degrees celcius. The third category we reviewed was the types of heating devices. One example is the Bunsen Burner. Boiling points varied from 94 degrees celcius to 102 degrees celcius. This data proved that the higher the range between boiling points indicated that the above variables did not have the greatest effect on the boiling point. Now, on the other hand when we analyzed the elevation level we found that the boiling point range was much closer. One elevation 6m was only 98.2 degrees celcius to 99.4 degrees celcius. Proving that this variable had the greatest affect on the boiling point. We have rejected our hypothesis of the volume of water affects the temperature of water at boiling the most. We have concluded that the elevation affected the boiling point the most. Therefore, if the elevation increases, then the temperature of water will decrease.

## Tigerton Middle School

#### Tigerton, Wisconsin, USA

After we doing our graphs, we didn't see a correlation between any of the items we graphed; room temperature, elevation, or volume of water. We think we did something wrong with our graphs.

We did learn that there should have been a correlation between elevation and boiling point. The higher the elevation the lower the boiling point. We think that is very interesting that you could never have hot chocolate on top of Mt. Everest.; it would boil at too low of a tempetature.

## Manalapan-Englishtown Regional Schools

#### Englishtown, New Jersey, USA

Final Report

This power point presentation was created by the students and teachers at the conclusion of the project, and submitted by Barbara Mammen, Supervisor of Science and Technology. The teachers' names are: Susan Lynch, Math teacher and Kathy Whitney, 8th grade teacher, at the Manalapan-Englishtown Middle School in Englishtown NJ (Monmouth County NJ).

## Veld Home School

#### Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA

We have concluded that elevation has the greatest effect on the boiling point because the points focused the most around the line of best fit on this graph more than any other.

## St. Mary School

#### Elyria, Ohio, USA

Class 8B

From analyzing our collected data, our class has come to the conclusion that elevation is the factor that has the greatest influence on the water's boiling point. After carefully examining our data charts, we noticed that elevation affected the boiling point the most. We also found out that water boils faster at a higher altitude. We have also noticed that certain food items have different cooking directions for different altitudes. This information supports our conclusion, elevation is the main and greatest factor that influences the boiling point of water.

Class 8H

Our class has come to the conclusion that elevation is the greatest factor in the boiling point project. We have also noticed that water boils faster at higher altitudes. While looking at our information charts, we noticed that on the elevation graph many of the clusters were around the trend line. Our final conclusion is that elevation is the main factor.