Students will draw on their previous knowledge and experience with weather
to predict approximate temperatures around the world and in
their home country and then compare their predictions with
real world data. Then, they will be provided with several
factors that influence the annual temperature pattern of a region and develop
hypotheses regarding how and why they think these factors
influence temperature develop plans how they might
investigate each factor.
Students will be able to:
- use observations and prior knowledge to make
- interpret real-time real world data from a map;
- understand that weather varies with location; &
- develop hypotheses for how and why several factors
influence the annual temperature pattern of a region.
One 45 minute class period.
- Real-Time Data resource:
- LIMITED-ACCESS: If technology resources
are limited, you can either display the World
map on a projector / television or print color
copies for each group.
- BACK-UP: Prior to introducing this activity, test the
real-time data World Temperature link. If the map is not
working, use the back-up site as described below.
- Review the following resources for information
about the factors that influence the annual
temperature patterns of a region
Part 1: Annual temperatures in your city / town
Begin by leading a brief class discussion with the
students using the first one or two questions (i.e.
Think of the hottest day you can remember, etc.). This
will get them thinking about the annual temperature
patterns in their location.
Part 2: Temperatures around the world
- After, it is recommended to divide the students in
pairs or small groups so they can share and discuss
their predictions with each other however each student
should be held responsible for answering each of the
- As an optional activity, you can lead a whole
class discussion after the pairs/small groups have
answered the questions. Time permitting, this can be
an important role in assisting the students elaborate
their thoughts about temperature.
Part 3: Factors that influence the annual
temperature pattern of a region
- Lead a brief class discussion with the students using the first one or two
questions (i.e. Do you think the temperature is the same or different in other
parts of the world?, etc.). This will get them thinking about the different
temperatures around the world. As above, it is recommended to divide the
students in pairs or small groups so they can share and discuss their
predictions with each other however each student should be held responsible
for answering each of the questions.
- Create a world and country temperature map:
Distribute world and country maps to the
students/groups (see notes below). For this activity,
tell them that they are going to illustrate the land
masses (continents) on a world map according using the
color key according to their predictions. To further
explain the instructions, you should mention that they
should illustrate the coldest regions blue, the
hottest region the pink, etc. After they complete
the world map, they should begin to work on the country
maps using the same color key. By completing this activity, the students will begin to theorize
about the various factors that influence annual temperature
patterns of a region.
- If you decide to arrange students in pairs or
small groups, you will need to have sufficient copies
of the printable world map for each group.
- For the country temperature map, it is recommended
that each student illustrate them individually so they
can take them home and complete the homework
assignment. Alternatively, if they illustrate a
country temperature map as a group, they will need to
work together as a group to complete the homework
- Compare your world map to real-world temperatures:
Students will now visit the World Temperature
map and compare it with the world maps
they just illustrated. You should mention that this is a
composite image of the world that displays observed land
temperatures. The goal of comparing the two maps will be
to provide the students with a taste of real world
temperature data in a graphic format so that they will
become further interested in learning about the factors
that influence the annual temperature patterns of a
region. Students should complete the questions to guide
them in their comparison.
- For the country temperature map, students will
complete them as a homework assignment.
Lead a brief class discussion with the students based on
the Venn diagram.
Explain that every location has a combination of factors that
influence its annual temperature patterns. In this
students will be provided with three major factors and be
asked to hypothesize HOW and WHY these factors influence
temperature and to develop a plan how they might
investigate each factor. It is also important to note
that most parts of the world also have many factors that
pertain only to a local region, however the three main
factors listed (latitude, local geography, and
elevation) influence any location.
Homework: Compare your country map to current
- Explain to the students that they are about to
begin a scientific investigation on how the given
factors influence the annual temperature patterns of a
region. However prior
to any investigation, it is important to develop
hypotheses about HOW and WHY each of the factors
affect temperature to serve as a starting point. After
they complete the investigation, they will have an
opportunity to return to their hypotheses to revise
and edit them.
- Since using charts and writing hypothesis may be
new to the students, it may be useful to review the
example provided in the activity.
- After you review the example, you may need to
initially explain each of the factors.
- Latitude: you may need to identify latitude
lines on the printed world map and remind the
students that the map is a projection of the earth's
shape which is a sphere.
- Students should complete the charts individually
or in pairs/small groups through consensus.
Additionally, the students may have a little
difficulty developing hypotheses for these factors.
Therefore, you should focus your efforts and those of
your students on fully thinking out each HOW and WHY
and successfully writing hypotheses. Since they will
be investigating each of these later, it is not
important at this time that their answers are
- Responses may vary considerably depending on
the prior knowledge of the students. You should
encourage students to base their hypotheses on what
they learned from the world temperature maps above and
on knowledge or prior experience they might have such
as when they visited relatives in different locations.
- If you are using the Weather Learning Log, you
should ask students to open to a new page and draw the
charts. This will be important later on when they
revisit them. If they are using the worksheets, collect them so you can return them later on.
Students will use local newspapers to access the
average temperatures of cities within their countries
and write them on their country temperature map that
they previously illustrated in Part 2. This can
be assigned as a homework assignment as most if not all
of the students should have access to a newspaper in
Make each student or cooperative group responsible for
NOTE: The following
instructions also appear in Student
Activity C1: Factors that
Part 1: Annual temperatures in your city / town
Discuss and answer the following questions:
- Think of the hottest day you can remember. What were the
weather conditions like (temperature, sky conditions, wind, etc.)? What time of
year was it? Why do you think it was so hot that day?
- Now, think of the coldest day you can remember. What were
the weather conditions like? What time of year was it? Why do you think it was
so cold that day?
- Now think about the annual trends and seasonal changes in temperature
for the year. How does temperature change during the year?
- List three
factors you think might affect these changes in temperature?
Part 2: Temperatures around the world
- Discuss and answer the following questions:
- Do you think the temperature is the same or different in other parts of the
world? Why or why not?
- Where do you think the hottest temperature will be? Why?
- Where do you think the coldest temperatures will be? Why?
- List three factors that you think might be responsible for these
differences in temperatures.
- Create a world and country temperature map
- Take out a copy of a world map.
|less than -10 șC
|-10 - 0 șC
|0 - 10 șC
|10 - 20 șC
|20 - 30 șC
|30 - 40 șC
|greater than 40 șC
Illustrate the land masses (continents) in your world map according the
to temperature using the color key to the right and your color pencils / crayons.
For example, you should illustrate the coldest regions purple and the
hottest region the dark red.
- Take out your country map and similarly illustrate the land area
according to temperature (you will analyze this map for homework).
- Compare your world map to real-world temperatures.
- Look at this
- Compare the world map you just created with the world temperature map and identify at least
two places where the maps are the same and two places where they are different.
- Write three reasons why you think they were similar or different.
Part 3: Factors that influence the annual temperature pattern of a region
Every geographic location has a combination of factors
that influence the annual patterns of its temperature, i.e. its climatological
temperature. Below is a Venn diagram that illustrates how the three main
factors (latitude, local geography, and elevation) contribute to
annual temperature pattern of a region.
- On a separate page of your Weather Learning Log, make
the following table and follow the directions below:
- Given each of the three factors, write HOW you think the temperature
changes and WHY you think it changes based on each of individual factors and
your ideas or plans on how you might investigate each factor. One
example for the effect of Day and Night has on daily changes in temperature
has been completed to serve as an example
NOTE: This is NOT a factor that contributes to the annual
temperature pattern of a region but rather has been provided to only serve as
an example of HOW to complete the others.
|Day and night:
||Example: I think that during the
day, it will be hotter while during the night, it will be cooler.
||Example: That's because the sun
is out during the day and heats up the earth.
||Example: I plan
to record the temperature at night and day over a series of weeks to
determine if there is any relationship.
(distance from large bodies of water, ocean currents, etc.)
- In the Venn diagram, each of the factors overlap with each other. Explain
how you think the combination of these factors influences the annual
temperature pattern of a region and the annual temperature of your city /
Homework: Compare your country map to current temperatures
- Get a copy of today's newspaper and open it to the current weather
- Look at the major cities and locate them on your map.
- Write the high temperatures near the major cities on the country map.
- Illustrate the map according the to temperature using the color key
above and your color pencils / crayons.
- Identify at least two places where the map and the temperatures of the
cities are the same and two places where they are different.
- In your Weather Learning Log, write three reasons why you think they
were similar or different.