Weather Scope
Table of Contents Using Real-Time Data Lesson Plans Implementation Assistance
 
Lesson C1: Factors that influence Temperature
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Overview
Students will draw on their previous knowledge and experience with weather to predict approximate temperatures around the world and in their home country and then compare their predictions with real world data. Then, they will be provided with several factors that influence the annual temperature pattern of a region and develop hypotheses regarding how and why they think these factors influence temperature  develop plans how they might investigate each factor.

Objectives
Students will be able to:
  • use observations and prior knowledge to make predictions;
  • interpret real-time real world data from a map;
  • understand that weather varies with location; &
  • develop hypotheses for how and why several factors influence the annual temperature pattern of a region.

Time
One 45 minute class period.

Materials

Teacher Preparation
  • Real-Time Data resource: world temperature map
    • LIMITED-ACCESS: If technology resources are limited, you can either display the World Temperature map on a projector / television or print color copies for each group.
    • BACK-UP: Prior to introducing this activity, test the real-time data World Temperature link. If the map is not working, use the back-up site as described below.
  • Review the following resources for information about the factors that influence the annual temperature patterns of a region

Procedure


Part 1: Annual temperatures in your city / town
Begin by leading a brief class discussion with the students using the first one or two questions (i.e. Think of the hottest day you can remember, etc.). This will get them thinking about the annual temperature patterns in their location.
  • After, it is recommended to divide the students in pairs or small groups so they can share and discuss their predictions with each other however each student should be held responsible for answering each of the questions.
  • As an optional activity, you can lead a whole class discussion after the pairs/small groups have answered the questions. Time permitting, this can be an important role in assisting the students elaborate their thoughts about temperature.
Part 2: Temperatures around the world
  1. Lead a brief class discussion with the students using the first one or two questions (i.e. Do you think the temperature is the same or different in other parts of the world?, etc.). This will get them thinking about the different temperatures around the world. As above, it is recommended to divide the students in pairs or small groups so they can share and discuss their predictions with each other however each student should be held responsible for answering each of the questions.
  2. Create a world and country temperature map: Distribute world and country maps to the students/groups (see notes below). For this activity, tell them that they are going to illustrate the land masses (continents) on a world map according using the color key according to their predictions. To further explain the instructions, you should mention that they should illustrate the coldest regions blue, the hottest region the pink, etc. After they complete the world map, they should begin to work on the country maps using the same color key.  By completing this activity, the students will begin to theorize about the various factors that influence annual temperature patterns of a region.
    • If you decide to arrange students in pairs or small groups, you will need to have sufficient copies of the printable world map for each group.
    • For the country temperature map, it is recommended that each student illustrate them individually so they can take them home and complete the homework assignment. Alternatively, if they illustrate a country temperature map as a group, they will need to work together as a group to complete the homework questions.
  3. Compare your world map to real-world temperatures: Students will now visit the World Temperature map and compare it with the world maps they just illustrated. You should mention that this is a composite image of the world that displays observed land temperatures. The goal of comparing the two maps will be to provide the students with a taste of real world temperature data in a graphic format so that they will become further interested in learning about the factors that influence the annual temperature patterns of a region. Students should complete the questions to guide them in their comparison.
    • For the country temperature map, students will complete them as a homework assignment.
Part  3: Factors that influence the annual temperature pattern of a region
Lead a brief class discussion with the students based on the Venn diagram. Explain that every location has a combination of factors that influence its annual temperature patterns. In this section, students will be provided with three major factors and be asked to hypothesize HOW and WHY these factors influence temperature and to develop a plan how they might investigate each factor. It is also important to note that most parts of the world also have many factors that pertain only to a local region, however the three main factors listed (latitude, local geography, and elevation) influence any location.
  1. Explain to the students that they are about to begin a scientific investigation on how the given factors influence the annual temperature patterns of a region. However prior to any investigation, it is important to develop hypotheses about HOW and WHY each of the factors affect temperature to serve as a starting point. After they complete the investigation, they will have an opportunity to return to their hypotheses to revise and edit them.
  2. Since using charts and writing hypothesis may be new to the students, it may be useful to review the example provided in the activity.
  3. After you review the example, you may need to initially explain each of the factors.
    • Latitude: you may need to identify latitude lines on the printed world map and remind the students that the map is a projection of the earth's shape which is a sphere.
  4. Students should complete the charts individually or in pairs/small groups through consensus. Additionally, the students may have a little difficulty developing hypotheses for these factors. Therefore, you should focus your efforts and those of your students on fully thinking out each HOW and WHY and successfully writing hypotheses. Since they will be investigating each of these later, it is not important at this time that their answers are scientifically correct.
  5. Responses may vary considerably depending on the prior knowledge of the students. You should encourage students to base their hypotheses on what they learned from the world temperature maps above and on knowledge or prior experience they might have such as when they visited relatives in different locations.
  6. If you are using the Weather Learning Log, you should ask students to open to a new page and draw the charts. This will be important later on when they revisit them. If they are using the worksheets, collect them so you can return them later on.
Homework: Compare your country map to current temperatures
Students will use local newspapers to access the average temperatures of cities within their countries and write them on their country temperature map that they previously illustrated in Part 2. This can be assigned as a homework assignment as most if not all of the students should have access to a newspaper in their home.

Assessment
Make each student or cooperative group responsible for their answers.

Student Activity


NOTE: The following instructions also appear in Student Activities.
Notebook Top Left Corner  Activity C1: Factors that influence Temperature Notebook Top Right Corner
  Part 1: Annual temperatures in your city / town
Discuss and answer the following questions:
  1. Think of the hottest day you can remember. What were the weather conditions like (temperature, sky conditions, wind, etc.)? What time of year was it? Why do you think it was so hot that day?
  2. Now, think of the coldest day you can remember. What were the weather conditions like? What time of year was it? Why do you think it was so cold that day?
  3. Now think about the annual trends and seasonal changes in temperature for the year. How does temperature change during the year?
  4. List three factors you think might affect these changes in temperature?

Part 2: Temperatures around the world
  1. Discuss and answer the following questions:
    1. Do you think the temperature is the same or different in other parts of the world? Why or why not?
    2. Where do you think the hottest temperature will be? Why?
    3. Where do you think the coldest temperatures will be? Why?
    4. List three factors that you think might be responsible for these differences in temperatures.
  2. Create a world and country temperature map
    1. Take out a copy of a world map.
    2. Temperature Color
      less than -10 șC  
      -10 - 0 șC  
      0 - 10 șC  
      10 - 20 șC  
      20 - 30 șC  
      30 - 40 șC  
      greater than 40 șC  
    3. Illustrate the land masses (continents) in your world map according the to temperature using the color key to the right and your color pencils / crayons. For example, you should illustrate the coldest regions purple and the hottest region the dark red.  
    4. Take out your country map and similarly illustrate the land area according to temperature (you will analyze this map for homework).
  3. Compare your world map to real-world temperatures.
    1. Look at this world temperature map
    2. Compare the world map you just created with the world temperature map and identify at least two places where the maps are the same and two places where they are different.
    3. Write three reasons why you think they were similar or different.

Part 3: Factors that influence the annual temperature pattern of a region
Every geographic location has a combination of factors that influence the annual patterns of its temperature, i.e. its climatological temperature. Below is a Venn diagram that illustrates how the three main factors (latitude, local geography, and elevation) contribute to influence the annual temperature pattern of a region.

Venn diagram that illustrates how the three main factors (latitude, local geography, and elevation) contribute to influence the temperature of a region

  1. On a separate page of your Weather Learning Log, make the following table and follow the directions below:
  2. Given each of the three factors, write HOW you think the temperature changes and WHY you think it changes based on each of individual factors and your ideas or plans on how you might investigate each factor. One example for the effect of Day and Night has on daily changes in temperature has been completed to serve as an example
    NOTE: This is NOT a factor that contributes to the annual temperature pattern of a region but rather has been provided to only serve as an example of HOW to complete the others.
Factor How Why Investigative Plan
Day and night: Example: I think that during the day, it will be hotter while during the night, it will be cooler. Example: That's because the sun is out during the day and heats up the earth. Example: I plan to record the temperature at night and day over a series of weeks to determine if there is any relationship.
Latitude:      
Elevation:      
Local Geography: (distance from large bodies of water, ocean currents, etc.)      
  1. In the Venn diagram, each of the factors overlap with each other. Explain how you think the combination of these factors influences the annual temperature pattern of a region and the annual temperature of your city / town.

Homework: Compare your country map to current temperatures
  1. Get a copy of today's newspaper and open it to the current weather section.
  2. Look at the major cities and locate them on your map.
  3. Write the high temperatures near the major cities on the country map.
  4. Illustrate the map according the to temperature using the color key above and your color pencils / crayons.
  5. Identify at least two places where the map and the temperatures of the cities are the same and two places where they are different.
  6. In your Weather Learning Log, write three reasons why you think they were similar or different.

 
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